Damavand Facts & Info

The Official Website of the Mount Damavand Guides Iran

Mount Damavand Facts & Information

Mount Damavand is an important symbol of Iranian identity, Iran's natural beauty, cultural heritage, and national pride, and it continues to inspire and fascinate people from all over the world.

Mount Damavand, Iran
Mount Damavand, Iran

The ascent to the summit of Mount Damavand is considered a significant achievement and a rite of passage for many Iranians, and the mountain holds a special place in the hearts and minds of the Iranian people. Mount Damavand is also a popular destination for mountain tourists, hikers, and mountaineers from all over the world.

Mount Damavand (دماوند‎ کوه) is a stratovolcano and is the Highest Volcano in Asia and the highest summit in Iran and the Middle East. Damawand has a great place in Iranian mythology and folklore. This mountain is located in the middle Alborz Mountain Range and surrounded by Polour Village, Haraz Region, Mount Gol-e Zard, Reyneh Town and Nandal Village.

There are fumaroles near Damawand Summit Crater emitting sulfur, which were known to be active since July 6, 2007. Therefore Damavand is considered as a potentially active volcano. It first erupted about 1.7 million years ago.

After several eruptions around half million years ago, it finally erupted about 6000 years ago. Damavand is situated in the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, near Amol county in Mazandaran Province about 80 kilometres (50 Mile) northeast of the capital Tehran.

Volcano Damavand Iran
Volcano Damavand Iran
Highest volcano in Asia 5671 m, 18,605 ft
Second highest volcano in northen hemisphere
Highest peak in Iran and the Middle East
Photo Ardeshir Soltani

Damavand Trekking Tour
Tours that include hiking or trekking over the mountainous terrain of Damavand or to the summit are known as "Damavand Mountain Trekking Tours." These trips can range in length and difficulty from short day walks to multi-day expeditions, and they often take place in remote regions. The Mount Damavand trekking tour is well-liked by those who prefer physical difficulties, the outdoors, and adventure. They provide the chance to discover some of the most beautiful natural settings on the planet, such as snow-covered mountains, alpine meadows, and glacier-fed lakes.

It's crucial to be physically prepared before starting a climbing tour of the Damavand mountains because the terrain can be difficult and the weather can be erratic. It is also crucial to have the right tools, such as solid hiking boots, warm clothing, and a bag you can count on. All across the world, particularly in well-known locations like the Alborz and the Zagos Mountains, mountain trekking vacations are offered. Several Damavand tour companies give guided treks led by knowledgeable guides who may share information about the area's flora and fauna as well as its culture and history.

Damavand Mountain Climbing Tour
Damavand Mountain Climbing Tour

Damavand Ski Tour
In addition to mountaineering, Damavand is also a popular destination for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter sports. The mountain is popular destination for ski mountaineers and ski touring, with several different backcountry ski routes available for different levels of skiing and snowboarding. Damavand winter climbing and ski touring can be challenging due to its high altitude and unpredictable winter weather conditions, so proper preparation and gear are essential.

Trek Damavand Mountain Iran
Ski Touring Damavand Mountain, Iran

Damavand Shelters and Campsites
The mountain has several well-equipped mountain shelters and campsites, where climbers can rest and acclimate to the altitude.

Damavand First Camp

Polour Resort is the best starting point for mountaineering to classic south route and the west route. This hut is an ideal place for Accomodation and also the best major settlement for Acclimatization in the area. Polur resort is located on the south face of the mountain in Polour village. This complex campsite is made by Iran Mountaineering & Sport Climbing Federation.

Mount Damavand Camps
Mount Damavand Camps

Damavand Routes

There are about 16 known Routes to Damavand Summit with different difficulties for Climbing Mount Damavand Iran. Some of them require rock climbing technics and are dangerous. South route is the most favorite side of the montain. It has good foot prints and also two good settlement in the midway campsite called Bargah Sevom, a small refuge at 4220 masl called Damavand Bargah Sevom Shelter and an excellent mountain resort called Damavand New Hut at 4250 masl. There is an icefall (frozen waterfall) called Ābshār Yakhī. Damavand Icefall is about 12 meters tall and is situated at the elevation of 5100 meters above sea level on the south route of this volcano. This frozen water fall the highest fall in Iran and Middle East.

The Northeastern face, also called Damawand East Route, is the longest trail and it takes two whole days to reach Damavand Peak starting from the village of Nāndal and overnight stay at Takht-e Fereydoun refuge, a two-story shelter. The western face is known for its sunset view. Sīmorgh shelter in this route is at 4100 m and is constructed with two stories. The south classic route is the most common face for Damavand Trekking Tour and also the most favorite side for Damavand Ski Touring Expedition.

Moun Damavand Iran Summer View
Moun Damavand Iran
Highest Peak in the Middle East 5,670 m, 18,600 feet
Highest volcano in Asia and the second highest in northen hemisphere
Photo Anosh Soltani

Flora and Fauna
The mountain is home to a variety of flora and fauna, including the Persian leopard, wild goats, and various species of birds. The flora around Mount Damavand is mainly composed of alpine plants, such as rhubarb, wild onion, and various species of herbs. The fauna around Mount Damavand includes several endangered species, such as the Asiatic cheetah, the Caspian snowcock, and the Persian fallow deer.

The mountain is home to several endemic species of plants and animals, including the Damavand oak, the Damavand frog, and the Damavand viper. The mountain is also known for its beautiful alpine scenery, including glaciers, snowfields, and alpine meadows, which are home to a wide variety of flora and fauna.

Damavand Skitouring, Hymalia Club April 2013
Mount Damavand Ski Touring

Protected Wild Life Zone
Mount Damavand is part of the protected Lar National Park, which is home to many other species of flora and fauna, including wolves, bears, and eagles.
Mount Damavand is surrounded by several protected areas, including the Lar National Park, the Amol Protected Area, and the Kholeno Protected Area.

Mount Damavand is one of the 52 peaks in the world that is over 5,000 meters (16,404 feet) tall and is included in the Seven Summits, a list of the highest peaks on each continent.

Damavand Mountain
Damavand Mountain

View from East Tehran

Thermal Springs - SPA

The area around Mount Damavand is known for its mineral springs, which are believed to have healing properties and are used for therapeutic purposes. There are several hot springs near Mount Damavand, including the popular Larijan hot spring, which is known for its therapeutic properties and attracts many visitors.

Volcano Damavand
has many thermal springs which gives evidence of volcanic heat quite near the surface of the earth. These mineral thermal hot SPAs are mainly located on the volcano's flanks and at the base of the mountain, mostly in Larijan district.

While there is no recorded historic eruptions, thermal hot springs at the base and on the flanks, and gas escape and fumarole that emits sulfurous gas near the peak indicate a hot or cooling magma body still present beneath this volcano, therefore Damavand Volcano is regarded as a potentially active volcano.

The most important of these SPAs is called Larijan Thermal Springs or Ab-e Garm Larijan with therapeutic qualities located in the district of Larijan near Reyneh Town. The hot water from this spring is useful in the treatment of chronic wounds and skin diseases. There are SPAs with public baths and small pools for public use.

Mount Damavand Summit, April 2014
Ski Touring to Mount Damavand Iran

Damavand is an important symbol of Iranian national identity and is mentioned in Persian mythology and literature. The mountain has a significant cultural and historical importance in Iran. Damavand mountain is also an important pilgrimage site for Zoroastrians, who consider it a sacred mountain and believe it to be the home of the legendary hero, Zahhak.

The mountain has been the subject of many literary and artistic works in Iranian culture, including poems, paintings, and music. Mount Damavand has inspired many artists and poets throughout Iranian history, including Ferdowsi, Hafez, and Saadi, who have written about the mountain's beauty, majesty, and spiritual significance. The mountain has played an important role in Persian mythology and folklore, and is considered a sacred site by many Iranians. According to legend, the hero Fereydun chained the evil demon Zahhak to the summit of Mount Damavand.

The mountain has a unique cultural and historical significance, and has been mentioned in several works of literature, including the Persian epic Shahnameh and the poems of Rumi and Omar Khayyam. The mountain has been the subject of several works of art and literature, including paintings, photographs, and poetry, which capture its natural beauty and spiritual significance.

Mount Damavand is a symbol of Iran's natural beauty, cultural diversity, and spiritual richness, and is an important part of Iran's national identity and heritage. The area around Mount Damavand has a rich cultural heritage, and is home to several ethnic and linguistic minorities, including the Gilaki, Mazandarani, and Talysh people.

Trek Damavand Mountain Iran
Trek Damavand Mountain Iran

Damavand Symbolism and Mythology

Mount Damavand is an important figure in Persian mythology. It is the symbol of Iranian resistance against dictatorship and foreign rule in Persian poetry and literature. In Zoroastrian texts and mythology, the three-headed dragon Azi Dahaka was chained within Mount Damāvand, there to remain until the end of the world.

In a later version of the same legend, the tyrant Zahhāk was also chained in a cave somewhere in Damāwand after being defeated by Kaveh and Fereydūn. Persian poet Ferdowsi depicts this event in his masterpiece, the Shahnameh:

بیاورد ضحاک را چون نوند
به کوه دماوند کردش ببند

Damavand is said to hold magical powers in the Shahnameh. Damavand Symbolism and Mythology has also been named in the Iranian legend of Arash (the archer) as the location he fired his arrow to mark the Iran border. It is also one of the best example of the mountain's significance in Persian literature is the famous Damawand poem by Mohammad Taqī Bahar: The first verse of this poem reads:

ای دیو سپید پای در بند
ای گنبد گیتی، ای دماوند

Oh white giant with feet in chains
Oh dome of the world, Oh Mount Damāvand
Mount Damavand is drawn on the the Iranian 10,000 rials banknote.

Damavand Symbolism and Mythology
Damavand Symbolism and Mythology

The summit of Damavand offers stunning views of the surrounding landscape, including the Caspian Sea to the north and the central plateau of Iran to the south. The view of Damavand from Tehran, especially during the winter when the mountain is covered in snow, is one of the most iconic and recognizable images of Iran. The summit of Mount Damavand is a popular destination for sunrise hikes. Watching the sunrise from the summit is considered one of the most beautiful and awe-inspiring experiences in Iran.

The mountain is visible from many parts of Tehran and the surrounding areas, and its majestic presence has been a source of inspiration for Iranian artists, writers, and poets for centuries. Mount Damavand is surrounded by several picturesque villages, including Polour, Rineh, and Amol, which are known for their beautiful landscapes, traditional architecture, and hospitality.

The Damavand volcano is a semi-active volcano, although there have been no recorded eruptions in recent history. Geologically, Mount Damavand is a relatively young volcano that has been active for the last 1.78 million years. The mountain is composed mainly of andesite and dacite volcanic rocks and has several volcanic features such as fumaroles, hot springs, and sulfuric deposits. The mountain has a long history of volcanic activity, and its last eruption is estimated to have occurred about 7,300 years ago.

Damavand Volcano, Iran
Damavand Volcano, Iran


Dammavand rivers and Lar Lake on the west of the mountain are known for the beautiful brown trout. Red sheep, wild goats and many singing native and migratory birds. Leopard and brown bear live in this region. Some smaller mammals are snow vole, mouse-like hamster. The very attractive and unreachable Caspian Snowcock lives in high altitudes.

Golden eagle breeds in this are. Griffon vultures are common. Chukar partridge has a high population and nests between stone and shrubs. Gold-fronted serin, linnet, snow finch, rock sparrow, rock bunting and horned lark are native; in winter they come to the lower hill sides. Visit also Damavand Nature.

In each spring wheatear, rock thrush and Nightingale come from Africa for breeding. Grey-necked bunting, black-headed bunting and common rosefinch come from India. Lots of marsh frogs lives in Lar riversides. Meadow viper, blunt-nosed viper, Iranian Valley viper and Caucasian agama are among the reptiles of this mountainous region.

In the southern slope of Damavand, there are remnants of wild pistachia tree. In its riversides different kind of salix trees like willow and Oleaster are found. Greek juniper is common all over the higher altitudes. In Northern slopes, because of higher humidity there are wild oak, beech and hazel trees like: Persian oak. Eastern hornbean, and oriental beech.

There are also many beautiful wild flowers like: Mountain tulip and stone cress. In higher altitudes shrubs tend to be sphere and cushion like, examples are: Astragalus species (like Astragalus microcephalus), Mountain Sainfoin (Onobrychis cornuta) and Prickly; different kind of grasses between them, complete this alpine scene. More in Wikipedia.

Water Source
Mount Damavand has a permanent snow cap, which feeds several rivers and springs that provide water to nearby villages and cities.
The mountain is considered an important water source for the surrounding areas, as it is the origin of several rivers and streams, including the Haraz River, which flows into the Caspian Sea.

Trek Damavand Iran, Italy Dream Team August 2012
Trekking Tour Mount Damavand Iran

About Damavand Mountain

Persia is home of ancient culture and wonderful history. The country is known as Iran in recent era and is blessed with very beautiful and interesting mountains in Alborz and Zagros Mountain Chains worth to be visited and climbed. The highest peak of Iran is called Mount Damawand which is the amazing hero of Iranian myth and folklore.

The oldest name for this volcano is Donbavand (mountain of many faces). But Ferdowsi Tusi, the highly respected Persian poet (940–1020 CE) in Iran has mentioned it in his famous book Shahnameh as Damavand (دماوند), meaning the snowstorm.

Facts and Statics

Elevation: 5,671 m (18,600 ft)
Prominence Factor: 4,667 m (15,312 ft)
Ranked: 12th

Listing: Volcanic Seven Summits
Location: Damāvand is located in Iran, Amol, Māzandarān Province
Mountain Range: Alborz Chain

Coordinates: 35°57′20″N 52°06′36″E
Geology Type: Stratovolcano
Last eruption: 5350 BCE ± 200 years
Damavand Easiest Route: South Route, Hike

Best Climbing Program: 4 to 5 days.
Best Start point: Polour Camp,
Best Starting Day: Saturday.

Best Climbing Time: 15 June To 15 September.
Best Climbing Side: South Route.
Best Camp for Acclimatization: Camp3 New Hut.

Highest peak in Persian Plateau and the Middle East.
Highest dormant volcano in Asia and the second highest volcano in the northern hemisphere.
Most Recent Eruption: None on record.

Distance from Tehran by road: 80km
Location: North East of Tehran, Iran in Central Alborz Mountain Chain.
Nearest International Airport: IKA Airport (or Mehrabad) Teheran, Iran.

Best Source of Information for Mt Damavand Iran

Recommended by Lonelyplanet - Iran (also in English guide book 6th edtion 2012 - page 73):
Tow excellent source of information on all things Damavand:
Damavand Info: (our website) and Mount Damavand Guide: (our weblog).

Mount Damavand, Iran
Mount Damavand, Iran

Additional Information

Culinary Traditions

The area around Mount Damavand is also known for its culinary traditions, including local specialties such as caviar, smoked fish, and kebab.


The mountain is located in a seismically active region, and has been affected by several earthquakes throughout history, including a major earthquake in 856 AD that destroyed the city of Rey.


The mountain has been the site of several mountaineering expeditions throughout history, including the first recorded ascent by a European climber in 1837.


The mountain has several glaciers, including the Sioleh and Ab-Pari glaciers, which are currently shrinking due to climate change.

Hand Crafts
The area around Mount Damavand is known for its traditional crafts, such as weaving, pottery, and woodcarving, which are passed down from generation to generation.

The area around Mount Damavand has been inhabited since ancient times, and there are many historical and archaeological sites in the vicinity, including the ancient city of Rey and the ruins of the Alamut Castle.


Mount Damavand is located in the Alborz mountains in northern Iran, about 70 kilometers (50 miles) northeast of Tehran, the capital city. The Alborz mountain range, which runs along the northern border of Iran and is home to several other prominent peaks, including Mount Sabalan and Mount Alam-Kuh. Mount Damavand is the highest peak in Iran and the Middle East, located in the Alborz mountain range.

Minerals and Natural Resources
Mount Damavand is also an important source of minerals and other natural resources, including sulfur, iron, and copper, which have been mined in the surrounding areas for centuries.

The name "Damavand" comes from the Persian word "Donbāvand," which means "place of gathering" or "gathering place." The mountain has been a gathering place for Iranian tribes and nomads for thousands of years.

Recorded Ascent
The first recorded ascent of Mount Damavand was in 1837 by a German geologist named Friedrich Wilhelm von Hahn.

Scientific Studies
The mountain has been the subject of many scientific studies and research projects, including geological surveys, environmental assessments, and biodiversity studies.

The mountain has been the site of many scientific expeditions and research projects, including studies on climate change, geology, and biodiversity.

Strategic Importance
In addition to its cultural and natural significance, Mount Damavand also has strategic importance for Iran, as it is located near several major cities and transportation routes.

In 2019, UNESCO designated the Alborz mountain range, including Mount Damavand, as a biosphere reserve.

Damavand Mountain Trekking Route Maps
Damavand Mountain Trekking Route Maps

Damavand Guide
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